One hundred years after the signing of the agreement between France and Great Britain, its impact on the Middle East and the current situation in the region have been studied. The agreement is often referred to as an „artificial“ border in the Middle East, „without taking into account ethnic or sectarian characteristics, [which] has led to endless conflicts.“  The question of the extent to which Sykes-Picot actually marked the borders of the modern Middle East is controversial.   On September 15, the British distributed a Memoir Aid (which had been discussed privately between Lloyd George and Clemenceau two days earlier) according to which the British would withdraw their troops to Palestine and Mesopotamia and hand over Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Aleppo to Faisal`s troops. While accepting the withdrawal, Clemenceau continued to insist on the Sykes-Picot agreement as the basis for all discussions.  U.S. President Woodrow Wilson had rejected all secret agreements between allies and encouraged public diplomacy and ideas of self-determination. On November 22, 1917, Leon Trotsky addressed a note to the petrograd ambassadors „which contained proposals for ceasefire and democratic peace without annexation and compensation, on the basis of the principle of the independence of nations and their right to determine for themselves the nature of their own development.“  Peace negotiations with the Quadrilateral Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey – began a month later in Brest-Litovsk. On behalf of the Quadrilateral Alliance, Count Czernin replied on 25 December that „the question of the nationality of national groups that do not have independence from the State“ should be resolved by „each State and its peoples constitutionally independently“ and that „the right of minorities is an essential element of the constitutional right of peoples to self-determination“.  In April 1920, the San Remo Conference distributed Class A mandates on Syria to France and Iraq and Palestine to Britain. The same conference ratified an oil deal reached at a London conference on 12 February on the basis of a slightly different version of the long-term berenger agreement, previously initialled on 21 December in London. Many see the agreement as a turning point in Western and Arab relations.
He denied the promises made by the United Kingdom to the Arabs regarding an Arab national homeland in the territory of Greater Syria, in exchange for British support for the Ottoman Empire. . . .